India has grown to be one of the largest information technology hubs in the world, employing over 31% of the population in the information technology industry alone. Hence, the notion of automation has been there since time immemorial. But the Luddites who repetitively oppose any aspect of modern technology, again pinpoint that one of the main reason to lose jobs was the enslavement of modern man into the hands of machines, overlooking the constant rise in employment.
The main focus hence lies in verifying whether the apprehension of the Luddites is correct or is it an outdated perspective. It would be completely incorrect if we do not consider that there are chances of unemployment due to new technology which automates processes and better efficiency. Therefore, the way to keep up with technology is to develop one’s soft skills, such as ‘teamwork’, ‘emotional intelligence’, and ‘communication skills.’
These are the factors which establish the fact that why there are still tasks that cannot be automated. Management of people, thinking strategically, inter-personal skills are the niche for humans, then machines. But, the impediment is that many high employing regions in our country have now been affected by the mechanization of jobs. For example, Delhi NCR, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh who offer 40% of India’s jobs now face a decline of 45.1%, 37.6%, 37.5%, and 37.2% respectively.
Future of Jobs in India survey connects this anxiousness of jobs directly to the rise of middle class. They took the automotive industry as one of their primary fields of research. The report says, “More than 75% of the industry experts believe that the rising middle-class and creation of highly optimized supply chains are the two primary megatrends impacting the sector.” According to the report, car exports increased 16% from 2016 to 2017 fiscal year, which indicates that ‘abundant and low-cost labor will continue to make India an attractive manufacturing hub at least for the next 2-3 years.’
The incorporation of AI, machine learning, cloud computing, and IoT in cars led to this increase in demand for new skill sets from the labors of the automotive industry. However, the extensive usage of Robotics for painting, welding has created a concern. But the report also points out the problems that arose due to the implementation of automation:
- ROI sums to 50%
- Labor cost against the cost of maintaining technology is 40%
- Availability of talent to enable technology is also 40%
The automotive industry has always been a work enforcer of nearly 7-8 % of the total workforce, and with government’s plans like Make in India, and Green Mobility Fund, this present jobs of 12.81 million are expected to rise to 14.30 million by 2022, establishes the report.
India Skills Report 2018, like Aspiring minds, also highlights the jobs that are likely to be more in demand. The domains namely are Data Analysis, Digital Marketing, HR Management, Project Management in engineering, IT, or even general management as set by Aspiring minds as sectors who will continue to be dominated by man, whereas Data Analytics, Robotics, AI, Concept Design, Research, and Development, is described by India Skills Report as, “Automation technologies including artificial intelligence and robotics will generate significant benefits for users.
60% of occupations have at least 30% of constituent work activities that could be automated. It will also create new occupations that do not exist today, much as technologies of the past have done. The extent to which these technologies displace workers will depend on the pace of their development and adoption, economic growth, and growth in demand for work.”
India Skills Report foresees the future job prospects in these areas as:
- Design (Hardware and Software)- 15%
- Research Development-20%
However, the impact of automation in the industry according to India Skills Report will be:
- 23% (less than 10%)
- 32% (10-14 %)
- 10% (more than 40%)
- 15% (no impact)
- 20% (cannot estimate)
The change that the job sector can see is perhaps only possible when our schools and starts to revamp the curriculum and inculcate and implement ‘training’, and research in the pedagogy in schools and universities that will make each and every student industry ready while he/she is nurturing himself/herself to get ready for the industry.