What is the Glass Ceiling Effect?
The glass ceiling effect is the universal resistance to the efforts of women and minorities to reach the top ranks of management in major corporations. It is indistinct exactly who named the occurrence, but the term was heavily used during the mid-1980s. Women who entered the professional world in large numbers during the late 1970s and early 1980s found themselves not capable to progress beyond a certain level of management.
In the 1980s, it was common for women of childbearing age to be considered less enthused and wilful than male employees or older females. The perception was that women would take far-reaching time off or leave the workforce altogether once they had children. If women did return to work, they were believed to be one of the lesser committed staff because of their maternal responsibilities. Thus, many companies have side-lined women in which their promotions did not have a real effect on the company.
Impact of Glass Ceiling
The backdrop of the U.S. job market has changed considerably in recent years. One of the most distinguished developments is the increasing participation of women in the workforce. In 2000, women held approximately 40.5 percent of all jobs in the United States of America, where within a span of nearly two decades, 43.1 percent of all U.S. workers were female, in 2016. Many of the jobs in which female involvement is growing most rapidly are high paying. In half of the jobs on this list, median earnings for women are higher than the median wage for all workers. Still, women do not earn more than their male counterparts in many of the jobs.
24/7 Wall Street compared U.S. Census data from 2000 and 2016 on employment composition by gender in over 300 occupations to identify the 20 jobs that have become dominated by women. More than half of all workers are women in every job on this list, and the increase in the share of women working in these professions range from 6.4 to 25.1 percentage points. At Fortune India Most Powerful Women (MPW) Summit 2018, Ashu Suyash, MD and CEO, Crisil said, “A lot companies make a show of saying that it is not just for women. It is gender neutral, but it goes against women during the appraisal time. There is not enough focus on meritocracy.” According to a 2017 World Bank report India ranked 120 out of 131 countries when it came to female participation in the workforce. Speaking about pay gap at workplaces, Ashu Suyash added that the fundamental issue around women pay is lack of salary negotiation. “And that stems from confidence issue. A lot of women who work come from need therefore the job becomes more important than all that comes with it.”
Few New-Wave of Women Leaders
“I always feel incredibly grateful that I live in a time and place where evolving technology has given everyone a fighting chance to attain what they dream for. A 100 years ago, the world was far more difficult to navigate for most people than today is. This women’s day, I would like to celebrate all those individuals who are making an effort to add genuine meaning to the world, regardless of their gender. It doesn’t matter if one wants to be an entrepreneur, a stay-at home mom, or an IT professional: each dream is equally valuable, and each dream comes with its own battles and sacrifices. So this women’s day, don’t wait for anyone else to empower you, go ahead and empower yourself, and contribute to a world where others can empower themselves too,” said Apurva Ayyagari, Co Founder and COO of Leo & Mike, Hyderabad.
Women as Ministers
She has been elected as a Member of Parliament for seven times and currently, she is the Union Minister for External Affairs of India.
After Indira Gandhi, she is the second woman and the first non-congress party (BJP) member who is serving as Defence Minister of India.
In Banking and Finance Sector
- Archana Bhargava, Chairman and Managing Director, United Bank of India
- Bala Deshpande, MD, New Enterprise Associates India
- Renu Sud Karnad, Managing Director of HDFC
- Naina Lal Kidwai, Group General Manager and Country Head of HSBC India (
- Chanda Kochhar, ICICI Bank MD and CEO
Food and Beverage Industry
- Vinita Bali, MD of Britannia Industries Limited
- Indra Nooyi, Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo
Health and Medicine
- Zahabiya Khorakiwala, Managing Director, Wockhardt Hospitals
- Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Chairman & Managing Director of Biocon
- Ishrat Akhter, CEO Concern Infotech Pvt Ltd.
- Aruna Jayanthi, CEO India Capgemini
- Roshni Nadar, Executive Director and CEO of HCL Corporation
Indian Women around the World
- Padmasree Warrior, Former Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of Cisco
- Komal Mangtani, Senior Director, Uber
- Neha Narkhede, CTO and Co-Founder, Confluent
- Kamakshi Sivaramakrishnan, CEO and Founder, Drawbrige
- Priyanka Chopra, Former Miss World, Actress, Founder of Purple Pebble Picture, Goodwill Ambassador of UNICEF global and United Nations Foundations Girl Up Champion.